Ensaluto

..SyIMPLyA TRANSFORMADE ANGLyAYS VERBEYS -+ .?KO EBLyAS PLEJSyIMPLyIGyI VERBAYN TENZASPEKTAYN FORMEYN

bildo de Ljeonjiid

 

.?ko (<= ?kyielj) eblyas plyejsyimplyigyi verbayn tenzaspektayn formeyn por anglyoparolyantay meney (= hhomey ,!note: hhome = hhjju(o)me = menshe = mene ,vyire => mune ,vyiryine => myine)..

..my atentu ,ke lya gramatyikay structuray jejlyomentey lyas frazes jas restyigyitay lya samay ,on porke plyeno komprenyi lya(n) fraz(e(n)) ,necesas ,certo ,scihyi lya(n) baz(a(n)) plyensenc(a(n)) lyexyik(e(n)) ,.pjje InhglihshEespe eblyas juzyi plyeno lya anglyan baz(an) lyexik(en) ,!krom(o) pes numeralyey ,kjay apartenas pem asyist(am) lyeksyik(em) ,on juzatay syimplyay gramatyikay jejlyomentey ,pruntoprenyitay pjjeljs komuna yi tauhga pors chjoy(s) nacijhay(s) lyingvey(s) gramatyike (pes) matra(s) (= “patryina(s)”) Eespa(s) lyingve(s) ,!yi komunyikantay korespondantey povas semstaro (<= memstaro) elyektyi juzaden pes necesay gramatyikay jejlyomentey dependo pet(s) zy(e)sa(s) (<= yilyi(es)a(s)) styilye(s) pes komunyikade(s).

..ekzemplyo ,pjje EsperantEespe necesas adaptyi lya anglyayn tenzaspektayn formeyn pes = pe(v)s = pev(s) = pev (< of /ev/ -+ transformata anglya prepozicijhe pev posedyiva genityive ,juzata yi pjje RusEespa dyialyekte plyejparto pjje rolye pev posedyiva sufyikse: otjeecev(s)a shljape = shljaape pevs otjeece(s) <= patresa chyapelye = chyapelye pe(v)s patre(s) => faadh(ehrh)esa hhyate = hyate pev faadh(ehrh)e(h)(s)) verbey ,porke fjey ju (<= (j)estu) juzatay pjje frazey ko jejlyovortay (<= kyielj unuvortay) jejdo+ orh jejvo+radyikay (<= du+ auh tryi+radyikay) verbey ,on nje konsyistay pjjeljs aparto+apudo kunmetyitay jejdo orh jejvo vortey ,jejlyo pjjeljs kjay jas plyensenca vorte.

..my scias ,ke echj lya anglya yinfyinyityiva forme pev verbeys konsyistas pjjeljs jejdo apuday vortey ,ekzemplyo: to read /tu ryid/ (<= lyegyi => (a)tyi lyeg) (((orh pjje RusEespe: chjitaatj(i) = atji chjit -+ .flyo (<= chyi+tyie+oh) jas montrata eblyece faryi lya semen (= samen) pjje chjay naciEespay dyialyektey yip (<= kun) suplyementa eblyece  montryi perfektan orh noperfektan formeyn pevs verbe per pemdonay (<= aljdonay) vokalyey /yi+/ orh /a+/ konformo))) ,on jas dezyiryindo pemkuljtyimyigyi anhko juzyi jejlyovortayn varyianteyn pevs chjyay verbay formey pjje InhglihshEespa dyialyekte: atyi ryid => ryidatyi => ryidyi.

..puso (<= subo) jas montrata plyeno korekta transformade pevs chjy(o)ay anglyay tenzaspektay formey pevs verbey hops (<= sen) perde(s) pevs fjesa(s) (<= qhyi(es)a) essence(s).

 

.!atentu:.!lya aryikolye jas skryibyita pors spertay polyiglyotey ,kjjay posedas (per(s(em))) anglya(m) lyingve(m) ,porke va (,note: .”va” jas estyimeca montra pronome ,dyiference pet lya kutyima “fa”) keljkay(s) krejhemay(s) pjjeljs zy(s) povus semstare (<= memstare) plejbonyigyi perspektyivan projekten (pes) InhglihshEespas dyialyektes ,!prok(e) my bono komprenas ,ke tradyicia Fundamenta Esperante  plyi (<= plyu) ne konkureblyas yip lya anglya(m) lyingve(m) ,!on nur yip(sem)o = yip(s)o = yipo (<= kuno) jejdo lya parencay(s) dyialyektey(s) (EsperantEespe yi InhglihshEespe) povos gajnyi konkur(enc)en.

.!ju aktyivay ,!pams (<= qhyis) yinauhgure (pes) Eespes restyis nonmuljto ji(ah)r(h)eys = jirheys = jiahrheys = jareys.

 

..lye proponyis lya 15+an (tagen) pes auhguste pes lya 2000+a jiahre (((,fan (<= chyi+tyi(u)an) daten lye nomyis “lya Tage pes glyobalya(s) matra(s) (= patryina(s) ,mul’todyialyekta(s)) Espa(s)  lyingve(s) yi komuna(s) muljtolyingva(s) skryibmanyiere(s) Dasheevyice(s)”))) pyi(s(e)m) baze(m) pes jejlyoeca (<= unueca) komuna muljtolyingva spelyin(h)ga (= or(h)t(h)agr(h)afyijha) skryibmanyiere Dasheevyice tuto neuhtralyan (h)opsnaciecan yidehen pes universalya komuna pors chjoay lyingvey (yinklyuzyivo pors Esperante) gramatyika skelete yips(e)m komunay la plejs(h) gravay vortay gramatyikay jejlyomentey (<= elementey) yi ,eblyo ,yips(e)m naciay nongravay dyiferencigay nuancey ,!prok (<= !ja) gramatyika logyike pes kombyinade pe(v)s vortey pjje dyiversnacijhay frazey qheneralyo jas egalya yi pjje chj(y)o(a)y lyingvey ekzyistas lya plejsh gravay vortklyasey (substantyivey ,adjjektyivey ,adverbey ,verbey) yi gramatyikay jejlyomentey pes propozyiciey (= frazey) ,necesas nur syignyi yilyin egal’maniere pors chjoay lyingvey ,!on plejparto pet(s) (<= de) baza nacia leksyike restas nacia yips(em) eblya pemdone pes populyaray olyalyingvay syinonyimey yi rezul’to my ryicevos mul’to das syimyilyay artefaryitay dyialyektey yip(sem) komuna gramatike yi nacia lyeksike ,kjay povas facilyo yinterplyektyiqhyi ,prunteprenanto olyalyingvayn syinonyimeyn ,yi fyinfyino ,on relyatyivo rapyido yi bal’do (<= bal’dauh) (,!lye ekplan(yit)yis daten: 15’’08’’2020 ko date pes yinauhgurade) naskyiqhos glyobalya realyo yinternacia matra (mul’tedyialyekta) Espa lyingve (,nome pes lya lyingve aperyis ko nonlyongyige pes vorte “Espe/rante” hhonoro pem lya lyingve Esperante ,kja pemkondukis lyen pem lya yidejhe).

 

..ryilyato pem Fundamenta Esperante ,juzata pjje la Esperanta Societe ,internacia lingva komunikelye jas EsperantEspa dyialyekte yip plyeno Esperanta baza lyeksyike (= lyexyike) ,pemdonay anglyay syinonyimey yi presko (<= preskauh) Esperanta gramatyike plyeno regulya hops esceptey ,pjje anglyalyingvay lyandey plejsh tauhga pors internacia komunikade jas InhglishEspa dyialekte yip plyeno anglya baza lyeksyike ,pemdonay Esperantay syinonyimey yi Espa gramatyike ,presko syimyila pem Esperanta gramatike ,on yip nuancey pes anglya gramatyike yi f’’p’’ (<= k’’t’’p’’)

.!pa(s(e)m) (<= (p)pantauh = pant(o)) vizite pjjen fremdlyingvan lyanden nje lyernu fremdan lyingven ,!on lyernu fremdlyingvayn syinonyimeyn pes desa (<= vyi(es)a) nacijha lyingve.

 

.!karay dyiverslyingvay esperantyistey ,komencantey yi spertay pyiplingvistey = pyinterlyingvyistey ,!lye pemvokas (<= al’vokas):

.!ju aktyivay pjje kreade pes lya plejs(h) belya pjje lya monde vere pyipnacijha (<= (p)yinternacijha glyobalya matra lyingve Espe

,!studu yi esploru fen (<= qhyi(e)n) ,!ryimarkyigu dyifekteyn yi mankeyn ,!proponu korektazheyn yi plyibonyigeyn pams (<= qhyis) lya date pes lya yinauhgurade: 15.08.2020.

,!hhel’pu realyigyi lya plejsh gravan reven pes lya hh(jju)omen(sh)are (= hhomare = men(sh)are) evyityi miskompreneyn pyip(s(e)m) (<=(p)inter) diversnacijhay meney dank’’om (<= dank’’ al’) komuna pyipnacijha lyingve ,pjje kja eblyas juzyi ech’ plyeno nacian lyeksyiken ,por(ke) atyingyi pacen pjje lya chjyoa (= tuta) monde.

..DAShEeVyICE yI EeSPE: TRANSFORMADE PES ANGLyAY VERBEY PjJE SyIMPLyAYN FORMEYN PORS JUZADE PjJE yINhGLyIShEeSPA VARyIANTE PES ANGLyA LyINGVE..

 

..Ljeonjiid Dasheevskjiyj..

 

..TRANSFORMADE PES ANGLyAY VERBEY PjJE EeSPA LyINGVE..

 

..partyicipe pjje lya gramatyike pes Eespa lyingve jas nopersona forme pes verbey ,kja hhas eceyn pes verbe

,(1) ,respegulyatayn pjje chya partyicipe per sufyiksey pes pasyinta (=> pasyisa) tenze (= tenzempe ,tempe gramatyika) orh ,alyivorto ,preteryite: +(i(s))(j)is+ ,pes estanta (=> jasa) tenze orh prezence: +(a(s))(j)as+ yi pes estonta (=> josa) tenze orh future:+(o(s))(j)os+ ,pors aktyivay partyicipey ,k(j)jay jas kreyitay pjjeljs konjjugaciatay formey yi pes transyityivay verbey ,yi pes notransyityivay verbey ,orh

(2) ,respegulyatayn per konformay sufyiksey +i(s)n++a(s)n+, +o(s)n+ pors pasyivay partyicipey ,kjjay jas kreyitay nur pjjeljs konjjugaciatay formey de transyityivay verbey

,kombyinas yip ecey pes adjjektyive danko pem adjjektyiva fyinazhe "+a(h)" ,proske  partyicipe olyavorto (<= alyivorto) nomaqhyas ko verba adjjektyive ,.on (<= tamen) (j)if (<= se) lya adjjektyivan fyinazhen +a(h) anstatauhyigyi pjjen adverban fyinazhen +o(h) ,fo (<= do) fa gramatyika forme pes verbe jam jos nomata ko (<= kyielj) verba adverbe orh ,alyivorto ,gerundyijhe ,on (<= sednje(s) ko partyicipe ,ko pjje lya anglya gramatyike.

 

..ryimarke: .pors plyejsyimplyige pes lya yinforma pryiskryibe flyo jas mencihyitay nje chjj(o)ay eblyay varyiantey pes lya pryiryigardyitay verbay sufyiksey yi ,certo ,tuto nje chjay eblyay fj(e)yesay (<= “yilyiay” -+ forme pes pseuhdopersona pronome pors hop(s)vyivay objhjektey) kombyinoy yip(s((e)m) olyay (<=alyiay) sufyiksey ,kjay ,ekzemplyo ,transdonas syignyifeyn pes jejlyixece = jejlyohoblyece (<= unuoblyece) yi no(n)jejlyixece = no(n)jejlyohoblyece (<= malyunuoblyece) ,yinterrompece yi nonyinterrompece (<= malyinterrompece) ,perfektaspektece yi nonperfektaspektece (= maljperfektaspektece) pes verba age yi fo(h)manyiero (<= tyieljmanyi(j)ero) fjey (<= yilyi) anstatauhlyudas rolyen pes certay rusay verbay prefyiksey yi sufyiksey orh pes fjyesay kombyiney pyip(s((e)m) (<= (p)yinter) sey(s((e)m) (<= syi).

 

..fo(h)manyiero pjje Eespa gramatyike pjjemo (<= dum) kreade pes dyiversay partyicipey yi gerundyijhey ,yi anhkauh komplyeksay orh kunmetyitay (<= yip(s)metyitay) verbay konstruazhey ,konsyistay pjjeljs lyigazhe pes hheljpay verbey yips partyicipey ,jas asyimyilyitay nje nur yiom (=> j(ej(o))mo) lyimyigyitayn eblyeceyn pes syimplyay yinfyinyityivay (vortaray) formey pes anglya verbe yi qhyiay (=> fjesay) partyicipay formey ,on (<= sed) anhkauh ryichyayn eblyeceyn de muljt(o)nombre da(s) rusay vortarverbay formey ,kjay jas krehyitay pero pes dyiversay kombyiney pes verbay radyikey yip(s) prefyiksey yi sufyiksey fo (<= tyiel) ,ke echj pjjej (<= lyauh) verba yinfyinyityive eblyas komprenyi pem (<= alj) kja (<= kyiu) aspekte (perfekta orh yimperfekta ,maljperfekta ,no(n)perfekta ,kontyinua ,aktualya) f(j)a (<= chyi+tyiu) verbe apartenas.

 

..f(j)an (<= chyi+tyiun) lyongan determyinen pes partyicipe my (<= nyi) klyaryigu per ekzemplyey pes formade pes aktyivay yi pasyivay partyicipey pjjeljs transyityiva verbe "rhyidi(h)" == "lyegyi(h)" ,"tralyegyi(h)" ( читать /chjitaatj-i(h)/, прочитать /prochjitaatj-i(h)/)..

 

..ryimarke: .!atentu ,ke pjje muljtodyialyekta Eespa lyingve chjoay dyiverslyingvay syinonyimey ,yinklyuzyivo yi lya verbay ,jas egaljrajtay ,on por plyi bona pyinterkomprene (=> pyipkomprene) yip alyilyandane ,kja posedas Eespan lyingven ,necesas penadyi juzyi pjje sesa (<= syia) Eespa parolye unuavyico (=> (pj)jejlyavyico) olyalyingvayn syinonyimeyn ,kjay jas sendubo (=> hopsdubo) kompreneblyay pjjej (<= lyauh) desa (<= vyi(es)a) supoze pem (<= alj) olyalyanda (p)yinterparolyante (=> pyipsparolyante) ,ekzemplyo ,prunteprenyitay pjjeljs efa (<= tyiu) nacia lyingvo ,kja jas denaska pem lya pyipsparolyante orh pjjeljs lya anglya lyingve ,kja jam jas lya plyejsh juzata pjje lya monde ko lya lyingve pes (p)yinternacia (=> pyip(s)nacia) komunyikade.

..AKTyIVAY PARTyICIPeY:

..rhyidi(n)s(t)a – lyegyin(s)ta ,rhyida(n)s(t)a – lyegan(s)ta (rhyida(n)s(t)o – lyegan(s)to), rhyido(n)s(t)a – lyegon(s)ta.

 

..ryimarke: .chj(j)amo (<= chyiam(o)) lyiterey pyip(s((e)m) krampey povas ji forzhetatay pjjej prefere (= (pjjej)prefero)  pes pyipsparolyantey dependo pes nuance yiptexte = yiptekste (<= kuntekste).

 

..chjoay fay (<= chyi+tyiuy) partyicipey jas kreyitay pjjeljs verbe pes noperfekta (kontyinua ,dauhranta) aspekte ops ja (<= yiu) yindyike pem estyige pes komence pes verba age yi pem fjesa (<= qhyia) fyinfare (fyinade) ,kj(f)e (<= kyi(o)eh) tamen jas plyeno garantyiata nur per juzade pes jejdo (<= du) dyiversay gramatyikay sufyiksey konformo: «+e(s)+» yi «+i(s)+» ,lya jejlya (<= unua) pjjeljs kjay yindyikas jejlyohoblyan = jejl(oh)yixan (jejlyohaktan) (<= unuoblya (unuakta)) age yi povas ji juzata memstaro orh yip(s(m))o yip(s)   (<= kuno kun) lya jejda (<= dua) sufyikse ko pemdone (<= aljdone) pem fje = fjem (<= alj qhyi) ,.lya jejda sufyikse fakto jas kreyita pjjeljs fyinazhe pes preteryite «+i(s)+» (yips eblya reduktade pes lya konsonante «s» yi yips eblya fjesa shanqhye pjjen noprononcatan lyiteren «h» orh prononcatan lyiteren «t» ,on lya lyitere «t» povas ji juzata nje nur anstatauh lya lyitere «s» ,on anhko (<= anhkauh) ko pemdone pem fje ,formanto lya lyiterkombyinen «st» ,kj(f)e (= kje) jas tyipo dumo nur pjje regyioney pes yinflyue pes rusa lyingve pros prunteprene pes fa lyitero pjjeljs tyipa pors lya rusa lyingve lya sufyikse «+т(ь)» /+t(j)/ pjje lya yinfyinyityive ,porke montryi ,ke verbayn fyinazheyn «-is», «-as» pos (<= post) pemdone pem fjey pes lya adjjektyiva fyinazhe «-a» pors kreade pes partyicipe orh pes lya adverba fyinazhe «-o» pors kreade pes gerundyijhe jam necesas impresyiqhyi ko sufyiksey ,pjje kjay vokalyey «-i-», «-a-» jam karakteryizas nje preteryiten orh prezencen pes verbe ,on fjesan perfektan yi kontyinuan (noperfektan) aspekten konformo.

 

..rhyidyi(s(t))yisa = rhyidyi(h)yisa == tralyegyinta = tralyegyi(h)yisa ,rhyidyi(s(t))asa = rhyidyi(h)asa == tralyeganta = tralyegyi(h)asa ,rhyidyi(s(t))osa = rhyidyi(h)osa == tralyegonta = tralyegyi(h)osa.

 

 

 

 

.. chyoay fay partyicipey jas kreyitay jam pjjeljs verbe pes perfekta aspekte yips yindyike pem estyige pes komence pes verba age yips hheljpe pes lya sufyikse «+i(s)+» ,kja montras jafojo (<= yiufojo) yi fyinfaraden pes age pjjemo (<= dum) koyincide pes lya vokalye «i» pes fa sufyikse yip lya vokalye pes lya aganta verba fyinazhe.

 

..rhyide(s(t))isa -+ eklegyinta (jejlyofojo = unufojo), rhyide(s(t))i(s)isa -+ ektralyegyinta (rapyido ,nonlyongdauhro <= mallyongdauhro).

 

..fay supremencihyitay partyicipey jas kreyitay hheljpo (= yip hheljpe) pes aljdona sufyikse «+e(s)(t)+» pjjeljs jejlohakta verbe pes perfekta aspekte yip fyinfarada nuance.

..PASyIVAY PARTyICIPeY:

rhyidyi(s)na = rhyidyina == lyegyita = lyegyina ,rhyida(s)na = rhyidana == lyegata = lyegana ,rhyido(s)na = rhyidona == lyegota = lyegona;

rhyidyi(s(t))yi(s)na = rhyidyi(h)yina == tralyegyi(h)(yi)ta = tralyegyi(h)yina ,rhyidi(s(t))a(s)na = rhyidyi(h)ana == tralyegyi(h)ata = tralyegyi(h)ana; rhyidyi(s(t))o(s)na = rhyidyi(h)ona – tralyegyi(h)ota = tralyegyi(h)ona;

rhyide(s(t))i(s)na = rhyide(h)yina == eklyege(h)yita = (ek)lyee(h)yina (jejlyofojo).

 

..vershajno ,porke montryi ko eblyo plyej (<= plyi) muljto das partyicipey ,kreyitay hheljpo pes dyiversay sufyiksey fa verbe (rhyidi(h) - lyegyi (читать /chjitaatj-i(h)/),tralyegyi (прочитать /prochjitaatj-i(h)/)) jas elyektyita nje trejo (<= tre) sukceso ,on mym (= pem my) (<= al(j) nyi) f(a)mo = fmo (<= nun) gravas komprenyi ko formyiqhyas syignyifey pes fay sufyiksey pors fjeyesa (<= yilyi(es)a) korekta juze pjje pyipsparolye (<= (p)yinterparolye).

 

..krom fe ,pjjemo juzade pes rusay verbey pjje Eespa lyingve necesas konsyideryi ,ke lya sufyikse +a+ pa (<= (p)antauh) lya fyinazhe +tj(i) jas karaktera syigne pes noperfekta verbe yi lya sufyikse +(y)i+ jas karaktera syigne pes perfekta verbe yi ,jif sufyiksey pes verbey pjjeljs rusa lyingve nje konformas ( = nonkonformas = no(k)konformas) pem lya mencihyitay ,necesas shanqhyi fjeyn pjjen lya konformayn ,ekzemplyo ,lya verben «прочитать» /prochjitaatj-i/ == tralyegyi necesas prunteprenyi pjje forme /(pro)chjitiitj(i)/,kje (= kjfe) permesas muljtayn rusayn karakterayn prefyikseyn faryi senbezonayn yi pros fe eblyos forzhetyi fjeyn pjjemo skryibade pes verbey.

 

..pjje lya anglya lyingve yip hheljpe pes partyicipey pjje kombyine yip hheljpay verbey to be /teh byi/ => (a)tyi jes(t) = jes(t)(a)tyi = jestyi yi to have /teh hhyav-i/ => (a)tyi hh(av) = hh(av)atyi = hh(at)yi = hhyi ,kjay  pjjemo hop(s)dependa memstara juze pjje paroly pjje rolye pes verba lyigyilye pors formyige pes kunmetyita predyikate orh pjje rolye pes syimplya verba predyikate senco (= pjjej sence) pes lya verbey konformas pem esperantay verbey "(j)estyi" kaj "hhavyi" (orh pem rusay verbey "быть" /bitj-i/ yi "иметь" /yimjeetj-i/) ,formas kunmetyitayn nonperfektayn kontyinuayn (pjje kombyine (= kombyino) yip lya verbe "(j)estyi") yi perfektayn (kombyino (<= pjje kombyine) yip lya verbe "hh(av)yi") formeyn pes aktyivay yi pasyivay verbey ,kjay montras certan ,konkretan peryioden pes preteryite ,prezence orh future.

 

..pe fe (<= chye tyi(o)eh) jas juzata kutyimo pjje lya anglya lyingve trej(o) (<= tre) lyimyigyita nombre das gramatyikay formey pes partyicipey ,nomo nur jejlyo forme pes aktyiva partyicipe pjje prezence yip lya fyinazhe «-ing» /+inh/ (reading /rhyidinh/ -+ lyeganta (,pjje Eespe = pjjej Eespe = Eespo: rhyidasa, lyegasa, chjitasa) ,lyeganto (,Eespo: rhyidaso, lyegaso, chjiitaso) ,on kun plyi lyarqhyay plyenpotencey pes aktyiva partyicipe nje nur pjje prezence ,on yi pjje preteryite yi future dependo pes ekzyiste pes aljdona kuntexte ,yi nur jejlyo forme pes pasyiva partyicipe pjje preteryite yip lya fyinazhe «-ed» /+i(h)d/ (readed /rhyidi(h)d/ -+ (tra)lyegyita (,Eespo: rhyid(yis)yina, lyeg(yis)yina, chjit(yis)yina) ,on kun plyej lyarqhyay plyenpotencey pes pasyiva partyicipe nje nur pjje preteryite ,on yi pjje prezence yi future dependo pes ekzyiste pes pemdona kuntexte.

 

..certo ,lya syimyilyayn kunmetyitayn formeyn pes verbey eblyas juzyi pjje InhglihshEespa dyialyekte ,on ekzyistas anhkauh eblyece transformyi lya kunmetyitayn verbeyn ,kjay konsyistas pjjeljs jejdo orh echj pjjeljs plyej (<= plyi) ,kolj (<= olj) jejdo ,vortey pjje syimplyay jejlyovortay verbey ,k(jja)mo = kmo (<= kyiam) hheljpa verbe yiqhyas ko sufyikse pes plyensenca verbe pjje forme pes partyicipe:

 

..kontyinua =no(n)perfekta (maljperfekta ,yimperfekta) tenze:

..ji rhyidisa (jestyi lyegyinta) => rhyidis(a)jis (lyegyin(s)t(a)j(est)yis = lyegyis(a)jis = lyeg(yis)jyis = lyeg(j)yis = lyegyis) delyongo ,plyej fruo ,kolj momente orh peryiode pes tempe ,fyiksyita per hheljpa verbe "jestyi" ,pros k(j)e lya tenzempe (= gramatyika tempe pes verbey) nomyiqhyas ko prapreteryite orh (p)antauhpreteryite (=> pa(m(o))(s)preteryite = pamspreteryite);

 

ji rhyidasa (jestyi lyeganta) => rhyida(s(a))jis (lyegant(a)jestyis == lyegyis (p)a(ntauh)nolyongo (<= panolyongo) ,jif plyej konkreto dyiryi ,lyegyis efmo (<= tyiam) ,kmo (<= kyiam) "jestyis" ,pros kje lya tenzempe nomyiqhyas ko syimplya preteryite;

ji rhyidisa (jestyi lyegyinta) => rhyidi(s(a))jas (lyegyint(a)jestas == lyegyis tuj ,pros kje lya tenzempe nomyiqhyas ko lya plejs(h) proksyima preteryite pauhpantauhprezence = papamsprezence ,proske (<= chyar) age pes verbe jas lyigyita yip prezence ,fyiksata per hheljpa verbe "jestyi" (= ji);

ji rhyidasa (jestyi lyeganta) => rhyida(s(a))jas (lyegant(a)jestas == lyegas tuj ,pros kje lya tenzempe nomyiqhyas ko kontyinua prezence..

 

..lya lyastay supremencihyitay jis ekzemplyey pes plyisyimplyigyita transformade pes verbay tenzay formey pors verbey pes kontyinua aspekte yip hheljpe pes plyisyimplyigyita forme pes hheljpa verbe «j(e)i(h)» («jestyi») ,on verbey pes perfekta aspekte formyiqhyas yip hheljpe pes ankorauh jejlyo hheljpa verbe «hhi» («hhavyi») ,kja anhkauh povas yip(s)yiqhyi yip plyisyimplyigyita forme pes hheljpa verbe «ji» pjje jejlyo vorte «hh(+it)(+i, i(s), a(s), o(s))+ji» ,pjje kja pyip krampey jas montryitay sufyiksey ,plyejqhyustyigantay certayn nuanceyn pes tenza forme pes pemdona hheljpa verbe «ji» ,kjay hon (<= tamen) kutyimo jas forzhetatay ,yip eblya ,on kutyimo anhkauh yignorata sufyikse pes transyityivece «+a(n)» pes plyensenca verbe:

 

 

 

 

..perfekta tenze:

 

..hh(it)(i)ji rhyidina(n) ((ek)hhavyi (tra)lyegyitan) =>

rhyidi(n(an))hh(it)(i(s))jis = rhyidihh(i)jis = rhyidihhjis (pjjeslyongo (<= delyongo) (tra)lyegyitan (ek)hhavyis ,pjjeslyongo (tra)lyegyis;

rhyidi(n(an))hh(i(s))jas = rhyidihhjas (tuj (tra)lyegyitan hhavas ,tuj (tra)lyegyis).

 

..hh(it)ji rhyidana(n) (hhavyi (tra)lyegatan) =>

rhyida(n(an))hh(it)(i(s))jis = rhidahhjis (pjjeslyonge (tra)lyegatan (ek)hhavyis ,pjjeslyonge (tra)lyegyis; pjjeslyonge lyeg(ad)atan (ek)hhavyis ,pjjeslyonge(tra)lyeg(ad)yis)

rhyida(n(an))hh(it)(a(s))jis = rhyidahh(a(s))jis = rhyidahhjis (tuj (tra)lyegyis), rhyida(n(an))hh(it)(a(s))jas = rhyidahhjas (tuj lyegatan hhavas ,tujtralyegas).

 

..danko”m (= dank(o) pem) efe(m) (<= dank” alj tyioeh) ,ke pjje InglihshEespa dyialyekte pes Eespa lyingve komplyeksay tenzaspektay konstruazhey pes verbey jas formatay pjje plyena konformece yip syimyilyay verbay konstruazhey pjje lya anglya lyingve ,fe permesas plyenumyi qhyustan pjjejvortan (<= lyauhvortan) traduken pes fay verbay konstruazhey pes lya anglya lyingve.

 

..fen (<= chyi+tyioehn) qy (<= vyi) (orh cy ,amyik(e)y pors apartay hhom(e)y = (hho)men(sh)(e)y = (hho)meny = meny = menshy = hhomenshy (.! fayn syinonyimeyn necesas memorfyiksyi porchj(j)amo (<= por chyiam)))   (ek)vyid(yit)os = vyidyitos pjje jo (<= yiom) plyej nonfruo montratay tabelyey ,tamen necesas konsyideryi ,ke Eespa gramatyike  nopruntoprenas (= nje pruntoprenas) blyindo nur lya anglyan gramatyiken ryilyato pem pruntoprenyitay anglyay verbey yi permesas konstruyi dyiversayn tenzaspektayn formeyn pes lya verbey ,elyektanto lya plyejsh tauhgayn gramatyikayn yideheyn pjjeljs dyiversay lyingvey ,yinklyuzyive pjjeljs lya rusa lyingve ,kja hhas trej ryichyayn sortyimenteyn pes dyiversay kompaktay afyiksey (prefyiksey yi sufyiksey) ,kje permesas echj ryifuzyi juzaden pes suplyementa kuntexte ,ekzemplyo ,pjje Eespa lyingve jas juzatay nje nur sufyiksey pes kontyinua (+a(t)+) yi perfekta (+(y)i(t)+) aspektey  ,on anhkauh plyej konkretay sufyiksey pes jejlyohakta lyonga (+a(j)+) kaj jejlyohakta nonlyonga yirh (= yi+(o)rh) (<= kauh (kauh = k(aj)+auh) ryipetata regulye auh neregulye (+e(j)+) agey pes verbe.

 

..muljtay studantay lya anglyan lyingven hhomey (= hhomen(sh)ey = men(sh)ey = meney) chyagrenyiqhyas ,ke lya anglyay tenzaspektay verbay konstruazhey jas trej komplyikay ,pros efe (= proske)  (<= chyar = pro tyioeh (,ke)) pjje anglya gramatyike ekzyistas 26 (= jjDQ /jejdeqe/,”q” prononcu ko /dz/) lya verbay konstruazhey orh ,alyidyiro ,gramatyikay tempey (= tenzey) ,kjay hhas lya saman nombren pes propray nomey yi ,ses(a)vyico (<= syiavyico) ,montras nje nur tempen pes verba age (preteryite ,prezence ,future orh future pjje preteryite) ,on yi verban genren orh ,alyivorto ,vochyen (aktyive ,pasyive) ,yi anhko aspekten (perfekte ,kontyinue).

 

.!tamen pjje Esperante yi pjje dyiversay naciay lyingvey ,ekzemplyo ,pjje lya rusa lyingve ,yip syimplyay verbay formey anhko eblyas (pjj)eljsortyimentyi lya samayn verbayn konstruazheyn echj plyej komplyikayn ,kolj (<= olj) pjje lya anglya lyingve ,proske (<= chyar) yilyi formyiqhyas nje yip hheljpe pes klyaray regulyay gramatyikay ryimedey ,ko pjje lya anglya lyingve ,on nur yip hheljpe pes kuntexte ,kvankam pjjej tradyicijhe fjey nje hhas klyaro espryimyitayn proprayn nomeyn orh ,alyidyiro ,termyineyn ,proske yi faryiqhyis (= formyiqhyis) eraran opyinyien pryi nonj(est)e (<= maljeste) pjje Esperante (!yi pjje lya rusa lyingve) pes fjjo (<= tyiom) granda nombre das verbay tenzempay konstruazhey ,ko pjje lya anglya lyingve.

 

..eblyas echj dyiryi ,ke pjje Esperante yi pjje dyiversay naciay lyingvey dyiversay kombyiney pes gramatyikay tempey pes verbey yip fj(e)yesay genrey (= vochyey) yi aspektey jas prezentyitay egalyo yi nur formo (= pjjej forme) pes espryime fjey jas nonsamay yi dyiversay ,proske pjje Esperante (kaj en lya rusa lyingve) yimperfekte (= kontyinuenjas egaljsenco determyinyitay ,proske jey (<= onyi) jas devyigyitay pemtyiryi (<= aljtyiryi) pjjen kuntexten pes fraze yip verba konstruazhe pemdonayn vorteyn , kjay plyiqhyustyigas dyifyinyitecen.

..ekzemplyo ,nonlyonga fraze “lye lyegyis…” (<= "myi lyegyis...") nje donas konkretan responden pem demande pryi tempe pes verba age ,?yi(lj) (<= ?chyu) okazyis f(j)e pjje konkreta momente orh peryiode pes verba age orh okazyis j(a)mo (<= yiam) jejlyofojo ,jejlyohakto orh jofojo (<= keljkfojo) ,orh epyizodo ,orh syimplyo jey yinformas nur pryi fakte pes age orh pryi estyinta eblyece orh kapablyece fjen faryi ,on restas nodyifyinyita rezuljte ,?yi(lj) (<= ?chyu) jis fje atyingyita (.?yilj tralyegyis fjje (<= tyiu) ,kjje (<= kyiu) lyegyis).

 

..pros fe pjjemo parolye pjje Esperante jey ja(y)s (jays = jey jas) devyigyitay pemdonyi klyaryigayn vorteyn pjjen efan mallyongan frazen ,kjay montras tempayn lyimeyn pes verba ago ,yi prefyikseyn yi sufyikseyn pes verbe ,kjay yinformas pryi atyinge pes rezuljte pes age ,pryi fjesa estyige orh kontyinua dauhryige en konkreta momente orh peryiode:

..lye lyegyis tuj (orh pjjemo konkreta peryiode ,ekzemplyo ,pet(s) lya jjRa (<= 9+a) pams (<= qhyis) lya jjLRa (<= 19+a) hhore);

..lye tralyegyis fmo (= tuj) ...;

..lye tralyegyis yiam pjjeslyongo (jejlyofojo ,jofojo (<= keljkfojo));

..lye lyegyis yiam pjjeslyongo (jafojo (<= yiufojo) ,jejlyofojo ,jofojo (<= keljkfojo)).

 

..lya esperanta vortkombyine "lyegyi tuj (=> fmo)" ,kyiu montras kontyinuo dauhryigantan agen orh procezen ,jas espryimata pjje lya anglya lyingve per kombyine pes hheljpa verbe  to be /teh byi/ ("jestyi") yip sekva aktyiva partyicip pjje prezenca forme pes plyensenca verbe to read /teh rhyid/ ("lyegyi")): ..to be reading /teh byi rhyidihnh/. ("jestyi lyeganta").

 

..sekvo ,jif (<= se) pjje Esperante necesas espryimyi agen ,kja kontyinuo dauhryigas ko proceze pjje prezence ,fo (<= do) pem plyensenca verbe pjje forme pes kontyinua aspekte jas pemdonata lya vorte "tuj" (= fmo) ,on pors espryime pes kontyinuo dauhryigata age pjje preteryite orh future kutyimo onyi montras qhyiayn lyimeyn (ekzemplyo ,pet lya 9+a pams lya 10+a hhore) orh qhyustan momenten pes tempe (ekzemplyo ,..pjje lya 9+a hhore).

 

..anglyey juzas kutyimo pjje fay okazey kombyinen pes hheljpa verbe to be /teh byi/ pjje konforma tenza forme ,yinformanta pryi tempe pes age pes (plyen)senca verbe ,yipsm (= yipsem = yip) aktyiva partyicipe pes fa senca verbe nur pjje forme pes prezence ,kja hon (<= tamen) jam montras nur kontyinuan karakteren pes age pes verbe pjjemo dyiversay peryiodey pes tempe ,montrata per hheljpa verbe ,on nje nur pjje prezence ,pro(s)ke (= chyar) aktyivay partyicipey pjje forme pes preteryite pjje lya anglya lyingve qhyeneralyo nje ekzyistas.

... to be reading /teh byi rhyidihnh/ - lyegyi ,lyauhvorta traduke povas konformyi pem kombyine pes hheljpa verbe "jestyi" = “ji” pjje lya sama tenza forme orh pjje forme pes yinfyinyityive ,pjje kja trovyiqhyas lya anglya verbe ,yip dyiversay tenzay formey pes aktyiva partyicipe pes senca verbe ,on nje nur yip fjesa forme pes prezence ,ko pjje lya anglya lyingve ("jestyi lyeganta" ,"jestyi lyegyinta" orh "jestyi lyegonta") ,kje (= kfje) permesas plyej(o) syimplyo espryimyi pjjemo parolye tre(j)(o) ryichyay yi rafyinyitay pjjej (= lyauh) enhhave pensey yi ,sekvo per fay kompaktay verbay konstruazhey eblyas juzyi anhko por eljdyirey pjje Eespa lyingve ,.dyiversay tenzay grupey pes fay verbay konstruazhey pjje lya anglya lyingve prezentas per syi lya kontyinuan aspekten.

 

..bedauhryindo ,pjje Esperante pafmo (= pa(ms) fmo) (<= dumo) nje ekzyistas syimplyay konkretay syfyiksey por(ke) syignyi perfektan yi noperfektan (kontyinuan) aspekteyn pes verbey yi pro fe jey prova(y)s tuto hhazardo yi nosufyichyo korekto elyektyi joayn (<= keljkayn) prefyikseyn yi sufyikseyn orh juzyi kunteksten por espryimyi perfektecen ,ekzemplyo ,per prefyiksey "ek+" ,"tra+" orh kontyinuecen  ,ekzemplyo ,per sufyikse "+ad+" ,on vokalyay sufyiksey pes perfekta verba forme "+(y)i" yi noperfekta (kontyinua) forme "+a+" ,prunteprenyitay pjjeljs unyiversalya gramatyike pes Eespa lyingve ,yipo yip (= kuno kun)  sekva konsonanta sufyikse pes verba transyityivece "+g+" orh nontransyityivece (= maljtransyityivece) "+qh(j)+" ,kjay jam ekzyistas pjje Esperante ,povas ji facilyo asyimyilyitay pjje gramatyike pes Esperante ,jif olyaformyigyi substantyiven "ag^e" /aqhye/ ,hhazardo nonfacilyiganta faryi fen (= chyi+tyion) ,pjje forme "ejqhye" ,prononcata presko (<= preskauh) ko samsenca anglya vorte "age" /(y)eyqh/ (,!nje tyimu juzyi fjen (= chyi+tyiun) renovyigyitan prononcen pes lya substantyive jam fmo (= tuj) pjjemo sesay (=syiay) yinterparolyey nje atendante ,kmo (= kyiam) fje (= qhyi) ryicevos ofyicialyan rekonen pjje Esperante).

 

..on ,ekzemplyo ,rusa perfekta aspekte trovas pjje lya anglya lyingve rektan konformecen hopspero  (= senpero) pjje verba konstruazhe pjje forme pes perfekta grupe pes tenzey ,pjje kja jas juzata hheljpa verbe "have" /hhyav/ pjje kombyine yip sekva pasyiva preteryita forme pes senca verbe ,!prok(e) (= !ja) ,ekzemplyo ,pem rusa verbe «прочитать» /prochjitaatj/ ,konforma pjje Esperante pem verbe "tralyegyi" ,konformas anhko (<= anhkauh) pem kombyine pes lya anglya hheljpa verbe have /hhyav/ yip sekva pasyiva preteryita partyicipe ,kreyita pjjeljs nonregulya verbe "to read" /teh rhyid/ (= «читать» /chjitaatj/ (ruso) auh "lyegyi" (pjje Esperante)) ,kjan jey skryiba(y)s pjjej regulyey pes tradyicia anglya ort(h)agrafyij(h)e (= ort(h)agrafyij(h)e = spyelihnhge) fo ,ko yinfyinyityiva forme pes lya verbe ,on fje jas prononcata olyo (= alyielj) ,kje karakteryizas fan verben ko nonregulya: read /rhy'ed/ = /rhyed/ (= ruso: «(про)читанный» /(pro)chjiitannij ,pjje Esperante: "(tra)lyegyita").

 

..fan plyenan verban konstruazhen eblyus tradukyi pjjejvorto (= lyauhvorto) ko "hhavyi tralyegyitan" (,!qhyusto fo ,jejlyosenco (= unusenco) ,kvankam solyan partyicipen eblyas tradukyi jejdeco (= dueco) yi ko "lyegyita" ,yi ko "tralyegyita" ,!fo jam okazyis pjjej hhyistoryiay cirkonstancey.

 

..espryime pes rezuljte pes age pes senca verbe per fjesa forme pes perfekta aspekte pjje chy(o)ay jejvo (= tryi) tenzey pjje lya anglya lyingve eblyas danko pem (= danko’’m) transformade pes hheljpa verbe "have" /hhyav/ pjje necesa tenza forme: have /hhyav/ orh has /hhya”z = hhyaz/ pjje prezence (,.flyo (= chyi+tyie-oh) apostrofe nur montras forzhetaden pes konsonante "v" pjjejs (= elj) verba radyike ,pro kje lya verbe jas kaljkulyata ko lya nonregulya) ,had /hhya”d / = /hhyad/ pjje forme pes preteryite yi will have /wil hhyav/ pjje forme pes future.

 

..pjje Esperante (yi pjje lya rusa lyingve) perfekta aspekte pjje prezence nje povas ji espryimyita nur per solya senca verbe ops hheljpa verbe orh ops specialya suplyementa prefyikse orh sufyikse yi pro fe ,porke espryimyi rezuljten pes age pjje prezence ,jas permeseblyo juzyi formen pes preteryite pes senca verbe pjje kombyine yips efjay vortoy ,kjay opsdubo (= sendubo) montras prezencen ,ekzemplyo ,”f(a)mo” (="nun") ,”fmo” (= "tuj" ,"zhus").

 

..lya anglya tenzaspekta syisteme pes verbey permesas plyisyimplyigyi kunteksten ops konformay suplyementay adverbey yi cirkonstancay komplyementey ,!prok (= !ja) lyiterkombyine "have read" /hhyav rhy'ed = hhyav rhyed/ jam ops olyay (= alyiay) suplyementay vortey espryimas rezuljton pes age yi fjesa prezence ,f”e” (= t.e.) kmo (= kyiam) fja (= chyi+tyiu) rezulte jas atyingyita ,(on)volj (<= kvankam) ,nono (= malyo) ,povas juzyi fjeyn (= yilyin) anhko (= anhkauh) ,!prok non(k)jje (= nonjje = nokjje = nonkjje = n(o)jje) (<= !ja nenyiu)  nonpermesas fen.

 

..se(m)kompreneblyo (= memkompreneblyo) ,lya sama eblyece povas ji realyigyita yi pjje Eespa lyingve:

hhyas rhyidi(h)(s)n(a) orh hhyas ch(j)yiti(h)(s)n(a) ( ,.fa lyasta verba konstruazhe kutyimo ops nodevyiga "s" ,montrata flyo (= chyi+tyie-oh) pyips (= (p)yinter) krampey ,jas karaktera pjje regyioney pes lya plyejs(h)(o) granda yinflyuj(h)e (= yinflyue) pes lya rusa lyingve).

 

..pustrekaden (= substrekaden) (lyogyikan dyistyingen) pes rezuljte pes age eblyas efektyivyigyi yip hheljpe pes cirkonstancay komplyementey ,markantay lyimen orh momenten ,pem kja jam jas fyinfaryita orh jos fyinfaryita certa age (,kutyimo pjje fa okaze pjje lya anglya lyingve jas juzata lya prepozyicij(h)e "by" /bay/ ,pjje Esperante -+ lya prepozyicije "al(j)" (orh pjje lya rusa lyingve -+  lya prepozyicije "k").

 

..necesas anhko konsyideryi ,ke perfekta aspekte pjje Esperante yi pjje lya rusa lyingve ,juzata kutyimo por espryime pes rezuljte pes age ,jafojo (= yiufojo) jas juzata nje pjjej sesa (= syia) rekta destyine yi nomo por espryime pes fakte pes age ,proske ekzyistanta rezuljte pes age opskondyichyo permesas supozyi yi efektyivan ekzyisten pes fakte pes realyige pes age pes fa lyongece pams atyinge pes lya rezuljte ,ekzemplyo ,pjjejs fraze "..lye tralyegyis fan lyibren pjjejslyongo (= delyongo)" sekvas vera konklyude ,ke anhko korekta jas fraze "..lye lyegyis fan lyibren pjjejslyongo" ,kja nur yinformas pryi fakte pes estyige pes age ,on rezuljte pes age jas pryisyilyentyita ,on nje yinverso ,proske pjjejs fraze "..lye lyegyis fan lyibren pjjejslyongo" nje eblyas lyogyiko konklyudyi ,ke "..lye tralyegyis (pams fyine) fan lyibren pjjejslyonge".

 

..pjje lya rusa lyingve ekzyistas vorta kombyine pes verbe yip adverbe “pjjetuto” (= "entuto") orh "qhyeneralyo" ,kja montras nodyifyinecen pes tempe pes verba age,espryimas agen nur ko fakte pes fjesa ekzyiste yi kutyimo fje jas tradukata pjjen lya anglyan syimplyo per lya verbe to read /teh ryid/ -+ lyegyi (ruso: читать /chjitaatj-i(h)/) ,on ,jif de (= vyi) juzas pjje jejlyo fraze yipo yip lya verbe lya cirkonstancan komplyementen pes tempe ko "hhyiero" (= "hhyierauh") ,"sabato" ,”patago” (= "(p)antauhtago") ,”pasemajno” (= "(p)antauhsemajno") ,"pasyintj(h)jaro" yi fo p” (<= k.t.p.) ,(yi)fo fe servas ko formalya yindyikyilye por juzade pes fjesa syimplya forme pes preteryite "read" /rhyed-(y)is/ -+ lyegyis (,ruso: читал /chjitaalh-(y)is/) ,kja pjje lya anglya lyingve espryimas agen ko fakte ,ko konfyirme pes age ,okazyinta j(a)mo (= yiam) pjje pasyintece.

 

..pjje Eespa lyingve chjo(h)ay (= chyiuy) verbey pjje forme pes preteryite hhas fyinazhen +(y)is ,kja syimplyo jas (pem)donata pem oryigyina vortara forme pes verbe ,prunteprenyita pjjejs lya anglya lyingve ,yi povas ji pemdonata formalyo pem verbey pjje anglyay frazey orh pjje konformay olyalyingvay (= alyilyingvay) frazey ko noprononcata yindyikyilye po(s) (= post) myinusa syignete syimyilya pem defyise ,kjen eblyas juzyi yi pjje dyiverslyingvay vortarey:

rhyidis (anglyo: read-(y)is /rhyed-(y)is/ => lyegyis (ruso: читал-(y)is /chjitaalh-(y)is/)

 

..pjje lya rusa lyingve kutyimo ekzyistas lya vortara forme pes verbey pjje fo nomata forme pes yinfyinyityive ,pjje kja necesas pa(s) (= (p)antauh) chje (<= chyio-eh) metyi Eespan sufyiksen pes perfekta orh nonperfekta aspekte (+(y)i(t)+ orh +a(t)+) yi poso (<= posto) jam metyi tenzan fyinazhen pes verbe orh fyinazhen pes fjesa mode: +(y)is por verbey pjje preteryite ,+as por verbey pes prezence ,+os por verbey pjje future ,+us por subjjunktyive ,+u por yimperatyive ,on pa (= (p)antauh) sufyikse pes perfekta orh no(n)perfekta aspekte povas ji metyitay lya sufyiksey pes jejlohakta (kutyimo lyongodauhra) age (+a(j)+) orh pes nodyifyinyita jo(h)akta (= keljkakta) regulyo ryipetata lyongdauhra age (+e(j)+) pes verbe.

 

..yifo (= do) ,sumyiganto ekzamyenyitayn demandeyn pryi dyiference yi syimyilyece pyip tenzaspektay agey pes verbey pjje lya anglya lyingve jejlyaflyanko yi pjje lya rusa lyingve yirh = yilj (<= kauh = kaj auh) pjje Esperante olyaflyanko ,eblyas konvyinko konfyirmyi ,ke yi rusey (orh dyiverslyingvay esperantyistey) ,yi anglyey ,juzanto sesayn naciayn gramatyikayn ryimedeyn pes espryime pes dyiversay agey per verbey ,dyiferencigas jejvo (<= tryi) fjey(es)ayn (<= yilyiayn) aspekteyn:

1)      fakte yindyiferenta pem tempe pes verba age (to read /teh rhyid/ => lyegyi qhyeneralyo pjje chjya tempe orh pjjemo nodyifyinyita peryiode orh momente pes tempe) ,respondanta pem demande ".?kjen (<=  ?kyion) faryi" ,verbe pes noperfekta aspekte yip suplyementa plyiqhyustyiga demande ".?kmo (<= ?kyiam) faryi”: .?pjje nodyifyinyita tempe orh ?pjje  (hh(a))chj(y)a tempe qhyeneralyo (,note: .pronome “ch(j)ya” jas nonkonkreta yi depend pet kuntexte povas egalyi pem “hh(a)chjya” yip nodyifyinyita pjjejtyirade yirh (<= kauh = kaj auh) elyektade eblyo nur keljkay pes apartay objhjektey pjjejs fjeyesa muljtece (,ruso: “fsjaka(ja)”) orh pem “f(a)chya” yip elyektade pes chjyoay objhjektey (,ruso: “kazhda(ja)”).

2)      proceze kontyinua (to be reading /teh byi rhyidihnh/ => lyegyi fmo (<= tuj) orh pjje dyifyinyita peryiode orh momente pes tempe) ,anhko respondanta pem demande ".?kjen faryi" verbe pes noperfekta aspekte yip suplyementa plyejqhyustyiga demande "?kmo faryi”: .?pjje dyifyinyita tempo. orh .?fmo.

3)      rezuljte perfekta orh ekestyigyita (to have read /teh hhyav rhyed/ => tralyegyi) ,respondanta jam pem olya (<= alyia) demande: ".?kjen faryi" verbe pes perfekta aspekte ops suplyementay plyiqhyustyigay demandey ,proske lejlosence eblyas komprenyi ,ke rezuljte pes age chjmo jas ryicevyita pjje certa ,dyifyinyita tempe.

 

..montratay flyo jejvo aspektey pes verbay agey jas baze por komprenyi ko anglyey pryiskryibas okazantayn pjje lya monde eventeyn hheljpo pes verbey yi fa jejvo(h)aspekta baze donas eblyecen evyidentyigyi jejlyosencan konformecen pem  lya rusay yi pem syimyilyay esperantay ryimedey pes pryiskryibe pes eventey ko faktey yindyiferentay pem tempe pes verba age ,procezey kontyinuay yi rezuljtey perfektay ekestyigyitay.

 

..on Eespa gramatyike pjjej yidehe pes fjesa kreante jas unyiversalya ,proke pjje fje jas asyimyilyitay dyiverslyingvay varyiantey pes syimyilyay pjjej destyine gramatyikay ryimedey ,yi normyigyita ,nje hhavanta escepteyn pjjejs regulyey ,yi anhko baza lyeksyike jas komuna yip dyiverslyingvay syinonyimey pes plej(s)parte das vortey ,kje donas pem dyiverslyingvay yinterparolyantey memstaro elyektyi varyianteyn pes gramatyikay ryimedey orh vorteyn pjjejs dyiverslyingva baze pes syinonyimey por plyejo bono komprenyi seyn (<= unu lya alyian => jejlyo olyan) ,plyej(o) fes (= fes plyej) (<= des plyi) ,ke pem kredeblya renkontyiqhye estontay yinterparolyantey kutyimo penas syin preparyi ,!prok (<= !ja) njas (<= ne estas) nonfacilya afere memorfyiksyi nur j(y)if (= nur(j)yif = j(y)if nur) (<= aljmenauh => aljmeno) jejlyo alyilyingvan syinonyimen pem chja nacia vorte.

 

 

 

 

..ekzemplyo ,pjje RusInhglihshEsperantEespa varyiante pes Eespa lyingve:

1) -+ .fakte yindyiferenta pem tempe pes verba age povas ji espryimyita yi per lya anglya verbe "tyi rhyid" (yip aparta yinfyinyityiva partyikulye orh yip eblyay olyay varyiantey pes yinfyinyityive: rhyidatyi, rhyidih) ,yi per lya rusa verbe chjit(aat)ji (anhko yip eblyay gramatyikay varyiantey pes yinfyinyityive yinklyuzyivo yip aparta yinfyinyityiva partyikulye: chjiitji, (aa)tji chjit) ,yi ,certo ,per konforma Esperanta verbe "lyegyi" = “atyi lyeg” .

,2) -+ .proceze kontyinua -+ (a)tyi ji rhyidasa = rhyidahsaji(tyi) = rhyidahsahtyi (fan elyekten pes verbay formey faras anglyey kaj olyalyingvulyey pjje regyioney pes lya plyejs(h) granda yinflyu(jh)e pes lya anglya lyingve) orh (aa)tji ji chjitaasa = chjitasaji(tji) = chjitaasatji (fan elyekten faras rusey yi ,certo ,anglyey pjje regyioney pes lya plyejsh granda yinflyu pes lya rusa lyingve ,on rusey povas juzyi anhko plyej vasto komunEespayn yi nur plyeno rusayn verbayn formeyn yip kombyine pes jo(h)ay (<= keljkay) sufyiksey anstato (<= anstatau) naciay prefyiksey ,dublyiganto fomanyiero (<= tyieljmanyiero) fjesayn funkci(jh)eyn ,espryimantayn jejlyoaktecen yip nedyifyinyita ,on ekestyigyita dauhre ,yi echj yip naciay prefyiksey ,kje tre plyiryichyigas Eespan lyingven ,yi anhko espryimantayn ryipetatan yinterrompatan procezen.

,3) -+ .rezuljte ekestyigyita (perfekta) -+ (yi)tyi hhyi rhyidihnah(n) = rhyidihnah(n)hhyi(tyi) = rhyidihnah(n)(yi)tyi (por anglyey pjje regyioney pes yinflyue pes nacia lyingve) orh (yi)tji hh(i)ji chjiitina(n) = chjitina(n)hhji(tji) = chjiitina(n)(yi)tji (por anglyey pjje regyioney pes yinflyue pes rusa lyingve ,klyo (<= kyie-oh) rusey juzas anhkauh komunEespayn yi plyeno rusayn verbayn formeyn).

..nur por konstatyi fakten yindyiferentan pem tempe pes verba age pjje pasyintece ,prezence yi estonte ops yinforme pryi fjesa dauhrece ,ekestyigece (perfektece) yi op(s)koncerne pem ja olya age orh momente ,pjje lya anglya lyingve kutyimo jas juzatay tenzey pes "nodyifyinyitay" tempay grupey(Indefinite Tenses /Ihndyefihniht Tyensihz = Tyenzihz/) ,on pjje lya rusa lyingve yi pjje Esperante pem fay tempey povas konformyi verbay tenzey yi pes perfekta ,yi pes noperfekta aspekte ,petpendo pet (<= depende de) sence pes fraze.

..ryimarke: .por lya anglya nome pes gramatyika tempe "tense" /t(y)ens/ flyo jas proponata ko lya markyita per syignete pes egalyece olya fjesa prononce yi nomo yip vochya prononce pes lyitere "s" (/t(y)enz/) ,porke plyej fyideblyo dyiferencigyi fjen pet olya hhomonyime nuryif (= aljmeno) (<= aljmenauh) pjjej prononce ,nomo pjje fa okaze pes lya vorte "tens" /t(y)ens/ -+ 1) adjjektyive: pjyi(m)tyiryita (<= surtyiryita) (ruso: натянутый /natjaanutij/) ,strechyo tyiryita ,strechyita(ruso: напряжённый /naprjazhoonnij/; тугой /tug(h)ooj/); 2) verbe: strech(yiqh)yi (ruso: натягивать(ся) /natjaag(h)jivatj(sjeh) ,напрягать(ся) /naprjag(h)aatj(sjeh)/ (,suplyementa ryimarke ,ryilyata pem orthagrafyijhe (= spyelin(h)ge) pes rusay vortey: .flyo qy (= cy ,jif vokyi amyikemo pem atente pes grupe das lyegantey) vyidas pjje lyatyinlyitero skryibyitay rusay vortey konkureblyayn skryibformey pes konsonantey “g” vochya eksplyoda (plyosyiva) yip opsvochya analyogazhe “k” yi “gh” vochya fenda (fryikatyiva) yip opsvochya analyogazhe “kh” ,kjay pjje nacia rusa (nuntempa => f(a)m(a)tempa ciryilya) skryibmanyiere nje dyistyingyiqhyas ,yi cy povas elyektyi pyip fjey se(m)staro petpendo pet cyhesa = ci(h)esa = ciesa propra pronounce ,on kutyimo forme “gh” jas nonplyej juzata ,kmo ekzyistas fonetyika aljternade pes konsonantey pjje radyikey pes rusay vortey: tughooj => tuuzhe(je) ,plyej tughaaja ,kmo sekvas pos fje opsvochya konsonante “k”: mjaaghonjkaja => mjaaghkaja kaj en jo(ak)ay = joay (<= keljkay) noknovrusay (<= maljnovrusay) vortey ,ekzemplyo ,pjje vorte “bogh” (бог)).

 

..jyif pjje lya anglya lyingve fan proponen eblyas yignoryi ,fo strebade pem lyikvyide pes hhomonyimey pjjej pronounce yi pjjej skryibforme pjje Eespa lyingve jas agnoskyita ko grava tendence pem plyejsyimplyige pes komprene pes senca pjjehhavo pes parolye ,pjje kje necesas sen (<= syin) tenyi anhko chj(y)oay studantey pes fa lyingve.

 

..anhko por evyityi aperen pes novay hhomonyimeyn eblyas pemdonyi orh konservyi pjje skryibformey pes muljtay anglyay vortey joayn (<= keljkayn) neprononcatayn lyitereyn orh lyiterkombyineyn yinklyuzyivo trej(o) ofto juzatan lyiteren r /rh/.

 

..tenzey pes grupe das "kontyinuay tenzey" (Continuous Tenses /Kehntinjjuehs Tyenzihz/) pjje lya anglya lyingve jas juzatay por espryime pes dauhra,kontyinua age ,kja komenciqhyis pams certa (dyifyinyita) momente pjje prezenca ,preteryita orh futura momente pes tempe ,ryilyato pes kja fa age anhkoro dauras ,dauryis orh dauhros.

 

..pjje lya rusa lyingve (yi pjje Esperante) pem fay tenzey jejlyosenco konformas verbay tenzey pes kontyinua aspekte ,on pros fe ,ke lya samay verbey pjje lya rusa lyingve povas ji juzatay yi por konstatyi yindyiferentan pem tempe pes verba age fakten pes estyigade pes age ,fo por plyi qhyusta traduke pes anglya verbe pjje kontyinua aspekte pjje rusa lyingve yi pjje Esperante jey ja(y)s devyigyitay pemtyiryi kunteksten orh pemdonyi pem verbe suplyementayn vorteyn “f(a)mo” (<= "nun") (ruso: сейчас /sjejchjaas/ ,теперь /tjipjeerj/ ,anglyo: now /nauh/) ,”fmo” (<= "chyi+momente") (ruso: в настоящий момент /v nastojaashjij momjeent/,anglyo: at this moment /yat dhis mouhmehnt/) k.t.p.

 

..certo ,pjjemo tradukade pjje lya anglyan lyingven necesas konsyideryi ,ke echj uzade pes fay suplyementay vortey pjje frazey yip verbey ,kjay espryimas senteyn ,senseyn ,percepteyn yi mensayn stateyn ,yi anhko yip joay olyay verbey ,kjay n(o)hhas = n(hh)as = nas (<= ne hhavas) formen pes tenzey pes grupe das "kontyinuay tenzey" ,nje donas eblyecen juzyi formen pes tenzey pes fa grupe ,proske fay verbey nje povas espryimyi agen orh staten ko proceze estyiqhyanta pjje certa momente.

 

,,pejm grupe pes fay verbey ryilyatas ,ekzemplyo:

 

to love /teh lahv-ih/ -+ amyi (ruso: любить /ljubjiitj-ih/) ,to like /teh lyayk-ih/ -+ plyachyi (ruso: нравиться /nraavjitjsjeh/) ,to hate /teh hhyeyt-ih/ -+ malyamyi (ruso: ненавидеть /njenavjiidjitj-ih/) ,to want /teh wont-ih/ -+ volyi (ruso: хотеть /khotyeetj-ih/) ,to wish /teh wish-ih/ yi to desire /teh dihzayeh-rhih/ -+ dezyiryi (ruso: желать /zhilhaatj-ih/) ,to see /teh syi-ih/ -+ vyidyi (ruso: видеть /vjiidjitj-ih/) ,to hear /teh hhieh-(y)rhih/ -+ auhdyi (ruso: слышать /slhiishatj-ih/) ,to feel /teh fyil-ih/ -+ sentyi (ruso: чувствовать /chjuuvstvavatj-ih/) ,to notice /teh nouhtihs-ih/ -+ notyi (ruso: замечать /zamjechjaatj-ih/) ,to know /teh (-)k”nouh-ih = teh knouh-ih/ -+ scihi (ruso: знать /znatj-ih/) ,to understand /teh ahndehstyand-ih/ -+ komprenyi (ruso: понимать /ponjimaatj-ih/) ,to remember /teh rhimyembeh-rhih/ -+ memoryi (ruso: помнить /poomnjitj-ih/) ,to forget /teh feh(rh)gyet-ih/ -+ forgesyi (ruso: забывать /zabivaatj-ih/) ,to believe /teh bihlyiv-ih/ -+ kredyi (ruso: верить /vjeerjitj-ih/) ,to recognize /teh rhyekehgnayhz-ih/ -+ rekonyi (ruso: узнавать /uznavaatj-ih/) ,признавать /prjiznavaatj-ih/) ,to seem /teh syim-ih/ yi to appear /teh ehpieh-rhih/ -+ shajnyi (ruso: казаться /kazaatjsjeh) ,to possess /teh pehzyes-ih/ -+ posedyi (ruso: владеть /vlhadjeetj-ih/ ,обладать /ablhadaatj-ih/) ,to contain /teh kehntyeyn-ih/ -+ pjjehhavyi ,pjjetenyi (ruso: содержать /sadjerzhaatj-ih/) ,to consist /teh kehnsist-ih/ -+ konsyistyi (ruso: состоять /sastojaatj-ih/) yi olyay.

..tenzey pes grupe das "ekestyigyitay (orh perfektay) tenzey" (Perfect Tenses /Pyoeh(rh)fihkt Tyenzihz/) espryimas agen jam ekestyigyitan pem certa(dyifyinyita) apoga momente pes parolye pjje preteryite ,prezence (!dyiferenco pes lya rusa lyingve yi Esperante) yi future.

 

 

.!ankorofojo atentu: .pjje lya rusa lyingve yi praktyiko pjje Esperante pem fay tenzay konstruazhey pes

verbey konformas nur verbey pes perfekta yi noperfekta  aspektey pjje formey pes preteryite yi future ,on nje prezence ,ono (<= tamen) lya anglya verba konstruazhe pjje forme pes prezence anhko jas tradukata pjjen rusan lyingven yi pjjen Esperanten per verbe pes perfekta aspekte pjje forme pes preteryite yip pemtyire pes suplyementay vortey yi vortay kombyiney (pjjej)tyipo pes “jejm … nurko” (<= "jam ... zhus") ,”jejm … f(a)mo” (<= "jam ... nun”) ,”pem f(a)ma momente” (<= “pem nuna momente" ,kyiuy k(h)arakteryizas f(a)man (<= nunan) tempen pes ekestyigade pes age.

..tenzey pes grupe das "perfektay+kontyinuay tenzey" (Perfect Continuous Tenses /Pyoeh(rh)fihkt Kehntinjjuehs Tyenzihz/) jas juzatay pjje lya anglya lyingve por espryime pes lyongedauhra (kontyinuaage ,kja komenciqhyis qhyis certa (dyifyinyita) apoga momente pes parolye pjje preteryite ,prezence yi future yi dauhryigyinta pjjemo certa peryiode pes tempe ,yinklyuzyivo fan apogan momenton de tempo.

 

..tenzey pes fa grupe povas espryimyi lyongodauhran agen ,kja dauhryis pjjemo certa peryiode pes tempe yi fyinyiqhyis rekto pa certa apoga momente pes parolye pjje preteryite ,prezence yi future ,on pjje lya rusa lyingve yi Esperante pem fay tenzey konformas tenzey pes verbe pjje forme pes noperfekta aspekte.

 

..yifoo ,jejbo (jjB) (<= kvar (4)) supromencihitay grupey pes lya anglyay tenzaspektay formey pes verbey pjjej jejvo (jjV) (<= tryi (3)) formey pjje chja grupe por espryime pes preteryite ,prezence yi future donas sumo jejledo = jej(lyi)chedo = jejly(ich)edo (= jjLD) (<= dekdu (12)) verbayn tenzaspektayn formeyn pjje yindyikatyiva mode pes aktyiva vochye (= verba genre).

..note: .jos trej (((,note: tre => trej ,on tro => trejs(h) = trejsh))) jutyilye por lya lyegantey  fmo memorfyiksyi lyatyinlyiterayn cifereyn ,juzatayn aljmeno por skryibyi decimalyayn nombreyn: jjJ (= 0) ,jjL (= 1) ,jjD (= 2) ,jjV (= 3) ,jjB (= 4) ,jjM (= 5) ,jjQ /dz/ (=  6) ,jjZ (= 7) ,jjG (= 8) ,jjR (= 9) ,ekzemplyo: jjDJLD = 2012.

 

..krom fay formey pjje lya anglya lyingve ekzyistas jejbo (4 = jjB) formey pes "future pjje preteryite" (Future in the Past /Fjjuchyeh(rheh) in (=> pjje) dhah Past-eh/) yi nomo:

1)      future nedyifyinyita pjje preteryite (Future Indefinite in the Past),

2)      future kontyinua pjje preteryite (Future Continuous in the Past),

3)      future perfekta pjje preteryite (Future Perfect in the Past),

4)      future perfekta+kontyinua pjje preteryite (Future Perfect Continuous in the Past).

..fay tenzaspektay verbay formey ,dyiferenco pet kutyimay formey pes future pjje syimplyay frazey ,servas pjje komplyeksosubordyigyitay frazey por espryime pes future nje ryilyato pem momente pes pjjesdyire (<= eljdyire) pes opyinyi(jh)e pjje forme pes komplyekso pusordyigyita (<= subordyigyita) fraze ,on ryilyato pem pasyinta momente (preteryite) ,kja jas espryimyita pjje jejla parte pes fa fraze yip verbe pjje forme pes preteryite ,f”j” (<= t.e.) por espryime pes josa (<= jestonta ,futura) age ,pryi kja jis parolye pjje lya jejda parte pes komplyekso pusordyigyita fraze ryilyato pem pasyinta momente ,kja jas espryimyita per verbe pes lya lejla parte pes fa fraze.

 

 

 

 

..fomanyiero pjje yindyikatyiva mode (The Indicative Mood /Dhah Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/) pes aktyiva vochye orh verba genre (The Active Voice /Dhah yAktihv-ah Voys-eh/) pjjetuto (<= entute) ekzyistas jejleqo = jejlyicheqo (= jjLQ) (<= dekses (16)) verbay tenzaspektay formey yi  ankoro jejlejo = jejlyicho (= jjLJ) dek (10)) formey jas praktyiko juzatay pjje lya anglya lyingve pjje yindyikatyiva mode pes pasyiva vochye orh verba genre (The Passive Voice /Dhah  Pyasihv-ah Voys-eh/) ,yiv(eh)n  (<= kvankam) eblyus pemdonyi pem fjey (yi)jet = anhk(o)ro (<= anhkoauh) jejlyo (= jjD) formeyn (futuren kontyinuan yi futuren kontyinuan pjje preteryite) pjjej analyogi(jh)e yip konformay verbay formey pes aktyiva mode ,f”j” pjjetuto my (<= nyi) ryicevas jejdeqo = jejdyicheqo (= jjDQ) (<= dudek ses (26)) (orh echj jejdego (= jDG) ,konsyideranto jejdo (2 = jD) permeseblyayn formeyn ,kjayn eblyus pemdonyi) tenzaspektayn formeyn pes lya anglyay verbey.

..yi nombre pes gramatyikay eblyecey por fe pje(lyo) (<= chye) glyobalya pjjej sesa esence Eespa lyingve echj pjje fjesa RusInglyishEsperantEespa varyiante ekzyistas nje nonplyej granda ,kolj pje lya rusa yi anglya lyingvey  olyay lyingvey yipo ,proske chjoay lya plyejsh(o) bonay gramatyikay yidehey ,praktyikatay pjje dyiversay lyingvey pes lya monde ,povas ji juzatay pjje Eespa lyingve por syimplya yi facilyo komprenata pjjesdyire echj pes lya plyejsho komplyika hhom(ensh)a (= (hho)mensha = (hho)men(sh)a = hhoma (varyiante por lya EsperantEespa yi por lya FransEespa) = mensha (por lya DoyochEespa) = mena (por lyay InhglihshEespa yi RusEespa dyialyektey)) pense.

 

..pjje rolye pes ekzemplyey pes fe qy trovos jam pjje kjjo (= kjej(k)o) (<= keljko) das tabelyey yip verbay tenzaspektay formey  anhko jejdo (<= du) (2 = jD) supremencihitayn suplyementayn formoyn ,kjay jas permesyitay pjje Eespa gramatyike ,on pjje lya anglya lyingve fjey jas kutyimo anstatauhyigyitay per konformay verbay formey pjjeljs grupe pes lya nedyifyinyitay (Indefinite).

 

..antauho my traryigardos pjje lya tabelyey verbayn formeyn pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the Indikative Mood /dhah Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/).

 

..yifo(o) ,my memstaro provu kreyi tabelyeyn por kvar tenzaspektay verbay konstruazhey ,kjay syignas preteryiten ,prezencen yi futuren pes verba age yi anhko futuren pjje preteryit ,f”j” futuren pes verba age pjje pemdona pusordyigyita propozyicijho ryilyato pes preteryite pes apoga verbe pjje chyefa propozyicijhe ,yip partyicipey pes preteryite yi future por lya anglya yi Eespa lyingvey konformo ,konsyideryito verban genren (vochyen) yi aspekten pes verbe.

 

..por maljplyigrandyigyi dyimensyieyn pes lya tabelyey my elyektu antauho syimplyan anglyan verben yip fjesay regulyay formey pes preteryita nedyifyinyita tenzempe (Past Indefinite /Past-ah Ihndyefihniht-ah/) yi regulyay formey pes fjesa preteryita partyicipe (Past Participle /Past-ah Pa(rh)tihsihp(eh)l-eh/)  hheljpo pes pemdone pes fyinazhe -ed /+ihd, +d, +t/ask /a(a)sk (bryit.), ya(a)sk (amer.)/ -+ demandyi (ruse: спрашивать /spraashivatj/, спросить /sprosjiitj/) pem yinfyinyityiva forme pes verbe (Infinitive /Ihnfinihtihv/.

..antyicipo my ekmemor(yit)u formeyn pes konjjugacijhe pes lya anglyay hheljpay verbey to be /te(h) byi/ -+ estyi (ruso: быть /bitj/) yi to have /te(h) hyav/ -+hhavyi(ruso: иметь /yimjeetj-ih/ en yindyikatyiva mode (the Indicative Mood /dhah Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/) ,konsyideryito ,ke egaljsencay formey pes lya hheljpay verbey jas lya plyejsh syimplyay: ji -+ estyi  yi hh(y)i -+ hhavyi ,.traryigard(yit)u pjjehhaven pes tabelyey yip traduke pjjen Eespan lyingven pos montryilye =>.

 

 

 

 

..tabelye 1 (jjL): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to be /te(h) byi/ -+ to be /te(h) byi/ -+ (j)estyi (ruso: быть /bitj/) pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): Present /Prhyez(eh)nt-eh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

I am /.aih yam/ => .le jas

You are /Ju aa(rh)/ (por lya 2+a persone pes syingulyare) => .de jas

he is /.hhyi iz/ => .v(u)e jas

we are /.wyi aa(rh)/

=> .my(i) ja(y)s

you are /.ju aa(rh)/

=> .qy(i) ja(y)s

they are /.dh(y)ey aa(rh)/

=> .zy(i) ja(y)s

I am being /.aih yam byihihnh/

=> .le jas jas(a) = .le jas(a)jas

he is being /.hhyi iz byihihnh/

=> .v(u)e jas jasa =vu(e)   jas(a)jas)

we are being /.wyi aa(rh) byihihnh/ => .my jas(ay)ja(y)s

you are being /.ju aa(rh) byihihnh/ => .qy jas(ay)ja(y)s

they are being /.dhyey aarh byihihnh/ => .zy jas(ay)ja(y)s

I have been /aih hhyav b(y)in/

=> .le hhas jin(an) = .le jin(an)(hh)as = .le jinas

he has been /.hhyi hhyaz byin/

=> .ve hhas jinan = .ve jin(an)(hh)as = .ve jinas.

we (you, they) have been /.wyi (ju ,dhyey) hhyav byin/

=> .my (qy ,zy) hha(y)s jina(y)n = .my (qy ,zy) jin(ayn)(hh)a(y)s = .my (qy ,zy) jina(y)s

I am not /.aih yam not/

=> .le n(o)jas = .le njas

I am not being /.aih yam not byihihnh/ => .le n(o)jas(a)jas

I have not been /aih hhyav not byin/ => .le n(o)hhyas jinan = .le n(o)jin(an)(hh)as = .le n(o)jinas = .le njinas.

Am I? /.?yam aih/ => .?le jas

Am I being? /.?yam aih byihihnh/ => .?le jas(a)jas

Have I been? /?hhyav aih byin/

=> .?le hhas jinan = .?le jinas

..tabelye 2 (jjD): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to be /te(h) byi/ -+ to be /te(h) byi/ -+ jestyi (ruso: быть /bitj/) pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): Past /Paast-eh, Pyast-eh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

I was /.aih woz/ => .le jis

You were /.Ju wyoeh(rh)/ (por lya 2+a persono de syingulyaro) => .de jis

he was /.hhyi woz/ => .ve jis

we were /wyi wyoeh(rh)/

=> .my ji(y)s

you were /.ju wyoeh(rh)/

=> .qy ji(y)s

they were /.dhyey wyoeh(rh)/

=> .zy ji(y)s

I was being /.aih woz byihihnh/

=> .le jis jas(a) = .le jas(a)jis

he was being /.hhyi woz byihihnh/ => .v(u)e jis jas(a) = .vu(e) jas(a)jis = .vu jasjis

we (you, they) were being /.wyi (ju ,dhyey) wyoeh(rh) byihihnh/

=> .my (qy ,zy) ji(y)s jas(ay)

= .my (qy ,zy) jas(ay)ji(y)s = .my (qy ,zy) jasjis

I had been /.aih hhyad b(y)in/

=> .le hhis jin(an) = .le jin(an)(hh)is = .le jinis

he had been /.hhyi hhyad byin/

=> .ve hhis jinan = .ve jin(an)(hhy)is = .ve jinis

we (you, they) have been /.wyi (ju ,dhyey) hhyav byin/

=> .my (qy ,zy) hhi(y)s jina(y)n = ...jin(ayn)(hh)i(y)s = .my (qy ,zy) jini(y)s

I was not /.aih woz not/

=> .le n(o)jis

I was not being /.aih woz not byihihnh/

=> .le n(o)jas(a)jis (= njasjis)

I had not been /aih hhyad not b(y)in/ => .le n(o)(hh)is jin(an) = .le njin(an)(hh)is = .le njinis.

Was I? /.?woz ay/ => .?le jis

Was I being? /.?woz ay byihihnh/ => .?le jis jas(a) = .?le jas(a)jis

Had I been? /.?hhyad aih byin/

=> .?le hhis jin(an) = .?le jin(an)(hhy)is = .?le jinis

 

..tabelye 3 (jjV): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to be /te(h) byi/ -+ to be /te(h) byi/ -+ jestyi (ruso: быть /bitj/) pjje yindyikatyiva modo (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): Future /Fjjuchyeh-rheh/.

 

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

I shall be /.aih shyal byi/

=> .le jos

You will be /.Ju wil byi/ (por lya 2+a persone pes syingulyare) => .de jos

he will be /.hhyi wil byi/

=> .vu(e) jos

we shall be /.wyi shyal byi/

=> .my jo(y)s

you will be /.ju wil byi/

=> .qy jo(y)s

they will be /.dhyey wil byi/

=> .zy jo(y)s

..praktyiko lya verba forme pjjejs grupe pes lya kontyinuay pjje lya anglya lyingve jas anstatauhata per tauhga forme pjjeljs grupe pes nedyifyinyitay: shall be (being)=> .le jos jas(a) =.le jas(a)jos

I shall have been /.aih shyal hhyav byin/ => .le hhos jin(an) = .le jin(an)(hh)os = .le jinos.

he will have been /.hhyi wil hhyav byin/ => .ve hhos jinan = .ve jin(an)(hh)os = .ve jinos.

we shall have been /.wyi shyal hhyav byin/ => .my hho(y)s jina(y)n = .my jin(ayn)(hh)o(y)s = .my jino(y)s.

you ( they) will have been /.ju (dhyey) wil hhyav byin/

=> .qy (zy) hho(y)s jina(y)n =  .qy (zy) jin(ayn)(hh)o(y)s = .qy (zy) jino(y)s

I shall not be /.aih shyal not byi/

=> .le n(o)jos = .le njos.

I shall not be being /.aih shyal not byi byihihnh/ => .le no jas(a)jos = .le n(o)jas(a)jos = .le njasjos.

I shall not have been /aih shyal not hhyav byin/

=> .le no hhos jin(an) = .le n(o)jin(an)os = .le njinos

Shall I be? /.?shyal aih byi/

=> .?le jos.

ShallI be being? /.?shyal aih byi byihihnh/ => .?le jas(a)jos.

Shall I have been? /.?shyal ay hhyav byin/

=> .?le jin(an)(hh)os = .?le jinos

 

..tabelye 4 (jjB): .konjjugaciado pes lya verbe to be /te(h) byi/ -+ to be /te(h) byi/ -+ jestyi (ruso: быть /bitj/) pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): Future in the Past  /Fjjuchye-rh in (=> pjje) dhah Paast-eh/.

 

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

I should be /.aih shu(')d byi/

=> .le j(i(h))os = .le jios.

You would be /.Ju wud(')d byi/ (por lya 2+a persono de syingulyaro)

=> .de jios.

he would be /.hhyi wu(')d byi/

=> .vue jios.

we should be /.wyi shud byi/

=> .my(i) jio(y)s.

you (they) would be /.ju (dhyey) wud byi/ =>.q(e)y (z(e)y) jio(y)s.

..praktyiko lya verba forme pjjeljs grupe pes lya kontyinuay pjje lya anglya lyingve jas anstatauhata per tauhga forme pjjeljs grupe pes nedyifyinyitay:

I should be (being)=> .le jios jas(a) = .le jas(a)jios.

I should have been /aih shu'd  hhyav byin/ => .le hhi(h)os jin(an) => .le jin(an)(hh)i(h)os = .le jinios.

I should not be /.aih shu'd not byi/ => .le n(o)jios =.le njios.

I should not be being /.aih shu'd not byi byihihnh/ => .le n(o)jasjios = .le njasjios.

I should have not been /.aih shud hhyav not byin/ => .le n(o) hhios jin(an) = .le njios jinan = .le n(o)jin(an)ios - .le njinios.

     

 

..tabelye 5 (jjM): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to have /te(h) hhyav/ -+ hhavyi (ruso: иметь /yimjeetj/) pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): Present /Prhyez(eh)nt-eh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

I have /.aih hhyav/

=> .le hhas

You have /,Ju hhyav/ (por lya 2+a persono de syingulyaro) => .de hhyas

he has /.hhyi hhyaz/

=> .vue hhas

we (you, they) have /.wyi (ju ,dh(y)ey) hhyav/

=> .my (qy ,zy) hhas

I am having /.aih yam hhyavihnh/

=> .le jas hhas(a) = .le hhas(a)jas = .le hhasjas.

he is having /.hhyi iz hhyavihnh/

=> .vue jas hhasa = .vu (или ve - он, она)hhas(a)jas.

we (you, they) are having /.wyi (ju ,dhyey) aa(rh) hh(y)vihnh/

=> .my (qy ,zy) ja(y)s hhas(a(y)) = ...hhasja(y)s

I have had /aih hhyav hhya'd/

=> .le hhas hhin(an) = .le hhin(an)(hh)as = .le hhinas.

he has had /.hhyi hhyaz hhyad/

=> .ve hhas hhinan = .ve hhinas.

we (you, they) have had

=> .my (qy ,zy) hhas hhin(an) = .my (qy ,zy) hhinas.

I have not /.aih hhyav not/

=> .le no hhas = .le n(o)(hh)as = .le n(o)as = .le nas.

I am not having /.aih yam not hhyavihnh/ => .le n(o)jas hhs(a) = .le nohhas(a)jas = .le n(o)as(a)jas = .le nasjas.

I have not had /aih hhyav not hhyad/ => .le no hhas hhin(an) =

.le nohhin(an)(hh)as =

.le n(o)(hh)inas = .le ninas.

Have I? /.?hhyav aih/

=> .?le hhas ,.?hhas le

Am I having? /.?yam aih hhyavihnh/ => .?le jas hhasa = .?le hhas(a)jas =  .?le hhasjas.

?Have I had /.?hhyav aih hhyad/

=> .?le hhas hhinan =

.le hhina(n)(hh)as = .le hhinas.

 

..tabelye 6 (jjQ): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to have /te(h) hhyav/ -+ hhavyi (ruso: иметь /yimjeetj/) pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): Past /Paast-eh, Pyast-eh/.

 

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

I had /.aih hhyad/ => .le hhis

he, she had /.hhyi ,shyi  hhyad/

=> .ve (= vu(e) ,vi(e)) hhis.

we (you, they) had /.wyi (ju ,dhyey) hhyad => .my (qy ,zy) hhi(y)s.

I was having /.aih woz hhyavihnh/ => .le jis hhas(a) = .le hhas(a)jis = .le hhasjis.

he was having /.hhyi woz hhyavihnh/ => .ve jis hhasa = .ve hhas(a)jis = .ve hhasjas.

we (you, they) were having /.wyi (ju ,dhyey)  wyoeh(rh) hhyavihnh/ => .my (qy ,zy) ji(y)s hhasa(y) = .my (qy ,zy) hhasja(y)s.

I had had /aih hhyad hhyad/

=> .le hhis hhin(an) = .le hh(y)in(an)(hh)is = .le hhinis.

he had had /.hhyi hhyad hhyad/

=> .ve hhinis.

we (you, they) had had /.wyi (ju ,dhyey) hhyad hhyad/=> .my (qy ,zy)  hhin(ayn)(hh)i(y)s = my (qy ,zy) hhini(y)s.

I had not /.aih hhyad not/

=> .le no hhis = .le n(o)is = .le nis.

I was not having /.ay woz not hhyavihnh/ => .le no jis hhas(a) = .le njis hhasa = nohhas(a)jis = .le n(o)as(a)jis = .le nasjis.

I  had not had /.ay hhyad not hhyad/ => .le no hhis hhin(an) = .le n(o)hhin(an)(hh)is = .le n(o)(hh)inis = .le ninis.

Had I? /.?hhyad aih/

=> .?le hhis ,.?hhis le

Was I having? /.?woz ay hhyavihnh/ => .?le jis hhasa = .?le hhas(a)jis = .?le hhasjis = .?hhasjis le.

Had I had? /.?hhyad ay hhyad/

=> .?le hhis hhinan = .?le hhin(an)(hh)is = .?le hhinis.

 

..tabelye 7 (jjZ): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to have /te(h) hhyav/ -+ hhavyi (ruso: иметь /yimjeetj/) pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): Future /Fjjuchyeh-rh/.

 

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

I shall have /.aih shyal hhyav/

=> .le hhos.

he will have /.nyi wil hhyav/

=> ve hhos.

we shall have /.wyi shyal hhyav/ => .my hho(y)s.

you (they) will have /.ju (dhyey) wil hhyav/

=> .qy (zy) hho(y)s.

I shall be having /.aih shyal byi hhyavihnh/ => .le jos hhyasa = .le hhyas(a)jos = .le hhasjos.

he will be having /.hyi wil byi hhyavihnh/ => .ve jos hhyasa = ,ve hhas(a)jos = .ve hhasjos.

we shall be having /.wyi shyal byi hhyavihnh/ => .my jo(y)s hhasa(y) = .my hhas(ay)jos = .my hhasjo(y)s.

you (they) will be having /.ju (dhyey) wil byi hhyavihnh/

=> .qy (zy) hhas(ay)jo(y)s = .qy (zy) hhasjo(y)s.

I shall have had /.ay shyal hhyav hhyad/ => .le hhos hhin(an) = .le hhin(an)+ (hh)os = .le hhinos

he will have had /.hyi wil hhyav hhyad/ => .ve hhinos.

we shall have had /.wyi shyal hhyav hhyad/ => .my hhin(ayn)(hh)o(y)s = .my hhino(y)s.

you (they) will have had /.ju (dhyey) wil hhyav hhyad/ => .qy (zy) hhin(ayn)(hh)os = .qy (zy) hhino(y)s.

I shall not have /.aih shyal not hhyav/ => .le no hh(y)os = .le n(oh)os = .le nos.

I shall not be having /.aih shyal not byi hhyavihnh/ => .le no jos hhasa = .le n(o)(hh)as(a)jos = .le nasjos.

I shall not have had /.ay shyal not hhyav hhyad/ => .le no hhos hhin(an) = .le nohhin(an)(hh)os = .le n(o)(hh)inos = .le ninos.

Shall I have? /.?shyal aih hhyav/

=> .?le hhos.

Shall I be having? /.?shyal aih byi hhyavihnh/ => .?le jos hhyasa = .?le hhyas(a)jos = .?le hhasjos.

Shall I have had? /.?shyal ay hhyav hhyad/ => .?le hhos hhin(an) = .?le hhin(an)os = .?le hhinos.

 

..tabelye 8 (jjG): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to have /te(h) hhyav/ -+ hhavyi (ruso: иметь /yimjeetj/) pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/):

Future in the Past /Fjjuchye-rheh in (=> pjje) dhah Paast-eh/.

 

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

I should have /.aih shud hhyav/

=> .le hhios.

he would have /.hyi wud hhyav/

=> .ve hhios.

we should have /.wyi shud hhyav/

=> .my hhio(y)s.

you (they) would have /.ju (dh(y)ey) wud hhyav/

=> .q(e)y (z(e)y) hhio(y)s.

I should be having /.aih shud byi hhyavihnh/ => .le jios hhyasa = .le hhas(a)jios = .le hhasjios

he would be having /.hyi wud byihhyavihnh/ => .ve jios hhasa = .ve hhas(a)jios = .ve hhasjios.

we should be having, you (they) would be having => .my (qy ,zy) jio(y)s hhasa(y) = .my (qy ,zy) hhasjio(y)s.

I should have had /.ay shud hhyav hhyad/ => .le hhios hhina = .le hhin(a)(hh)ios = .le hhinios.

he would have had /.hyi wud hhav hhad/ => .ve hhios hhina = .ve hhin(a)(hh)ios = .ve hhasios.

we should (you, they would) have had => .my (qy ,zy) hhio(y)s hhina(y) = ...hhin(a)(hh)io(y)s = .my (qy ,zy) hhinio(y)s.

I should not have /.aih shud not hhyav/ => .le n(o) (hh)ios = .le nios.

I should not be having /.aih shud not byi hhyavihnh/ => .le no jios  hhasa = .le n(o)(hh)as(a)jios = .le nasjios

I should not have had /.ay shud not hhyav hhyad/ =>

.le no hhios hhin(an) =

.le n(o)(hh)in(an)(hh)ios =

.le ninios.

     

 

..tabelye 9 (jjR): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to ask /teh (y)a(a)sk/ pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): The Active Voice /.dhah yaktihv-ah voys-eh/) ,Present /Prhyez(eh)nt-eh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

I ask => .le ask(as).

you ask (por lya 2+a persone pes syingulyare) => .de ask.

he asks => .ve ask.

we ask => .m(e)y ask.

you ask => .q(e)y ask.

they ask => .z(e)y ask(a(y)s).

I am asking

=> .le jas askasa = .le askas(a)jas = .le askas(j(as)).

he is asking

=> .ve jas askasa = .ve askas(a)jas = .ve askas(j(as)) = ...askas(a)jas.

we (you, they)  are asking => .my (qy ,zy) ja(y)s askasa(y) =

.my (qy ,zy) askas(ay)ja(y)s = .my (qy ,zy) askas(j(a(y)s)) = .my (qy ,zy) askas(a)ja(y)s.

I have asked => .le hhas askin(a(n)) = .le askin(a)(hh)as = .le askinas.

he has asked => .ve hhas askin(a(n)) = .ve askin(a)(hh)as = .ve askinas.

we have asked => .my hha(y)s askin(a(y)n) = .my askin(a(y)n)(hh)as = .my askina(y)s.

you (they) have asked => .qy (zy) askina(y)s.

I have been asking,

he has been asking => .le (de ,ve) hhas jin(an) askasa => .le (de ,ve) askas(a)jin(an)(hh)as = .le (de ,ve) askas(a)jin(an)as = ...askas(a)jinas

we (you, they) have been asking => .my (qy ,zy) askas(a)jin(a(y)(n))as = ...askas(a)jina(y)s.

I do not ask => .le no tas ask = .le no ask(as)

I am not asking => .le no jas (= njas) askasa = .le no askas(a)(j(as)) = .le no askas(a)jas.

I have not asked => .le no hhas askinan = .le no askinas.

I have not been asking => .le no (hh)as jin(an) askas(a) = .le no askas(a)jinas

Do I ask? => .?tas le ask(as) = .?le tas ask = .?le ask(as) = .?askas le.

Am I asking? => .?jas le askasa = .?le jas askasa = .?le askas(a)jas.

Have I asked? => .?le hhas askinan =.?le askinas.

Have I been asking? => .?hhas le jinan askasa = .?le askas(a)jinas.

..tabelye 10 (jjLJ): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to ask /teh (y)a(a)sk/ pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): The Active Voice /.dhah yaktihv-ah voys-eh/) ,Past /Paast-eh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

I asked => .le askis

You asked => .de ...

he (she) asked =>.ve...

we (you, they) asked => .my (qy ,zy)  aski(y)s

I (he) was asking => .le (de ,ve) jis askasa = .le (de ,ve) askas(a)jis = .le (de ,ve) askasjis.

we (you, they) were asking => .my (qy ,zy) ji(y)s askasa(y)

= .my (qy ,zy) askas(a(y))ji(y)s = .my (qy ,zy) askasji(y)s.

I (You, he) had asked => .le (de, ve) hhis askinan = .le (de ,ve) askin(an)(hh)is = ... askinis.

we (you, they) had asked => my (qy ,zy) hhi(y)s askina(y)n

= .my (qy ,zy) askin(a(y)n)(hh)i(y)s = ... askini(y)s.

I (You, he) had been asking => .le (de ,ve) hhis jinan askasa = ... askas(a)jin(an)(hh)is = ... askas(a)jin(an)is = .le (de ,ve) askas(a)jinis.

we (you, they) had been asking =>.my (qy ,zy) hhi(y)s jina(y)n askasa(y) = ... askas(a(y)jin(ayn)i(y)s = ... askasjini(y)s.

I did not ask = .le no tis ask = .le no askis

I was not asking => .le no jis askasa =.le no askas(a)jis.

I had not asked = .le no hhis askinan =.le no askin(an)is = .le no askinis.

I had not been asking => .le no hhis jinan askasa = .le no askas(a)jis(an)is = .le no askasjisis.

Did I ask? => .?tis le ask = .?le askis = .?askis le.

Was I asking? => .?jis le askasa = .?le jis askasa = .?le askas(a)jis.

Had I asked? => .?hhis le askinan = .?le hhis askinan = .?le askinis.

Had I been asking? => .?hhis le jinan askasa = .?le hhis jinan askasa = .?le askasjinis.

..tabelye 11 (jjLL): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to ask /teh (y)a(a)sk/ pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): The Active Voice /.dhah yaktihv-ah voys-eh/)

,Future /Fjjucheh-rheh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

I shall ask => .le tos ask = .le askos.

he will ask => .ve tos ask = .ve askos.

we shall ask => .my to(y)s ask = .my asko(y)s.

you (they) will ask => .qy (zy) to(y)s ask = .qy (zy) asko(y)s.

I shall be asking => .le jos askasa = .le askas(a)jos.

he will be asking => .ve jos askasa =.ve askas(a)jos.

we (you, they)  shall  (will) be asking => .my (qy ,zy) jos askasa = .my (qy ,zy) askas(a)jos.

I shall have asked => .le hhos askinan = .le askin(an)(hh)os = .le askin(an)os = .le askinos.

he will have asked => .ve hhos askinan = .ve askin(an)(hh)os = .ve askin(an)os = .ve askinos.

we shall(you, they will)  have asked => .my (qy ,zy) hho(y)s askina(y)n =.my (qy ,zy) askin(a(y)n)(hh)o(y)s = .my (qy ,zy) askino(y)s.

I shall have been asking => .le hhos jinan askasa = .le askas(a)jin(an)(hh)os = .le askas(a)jinos.

he will have been asking => .ve hhos jinan askasa = .ve askas(a)jin(an)(hh)os = .ve askas(a)jinos.

we shall (you, they) have been asking => .my (qy ,zy) hhos jinan askasa =.my (qy ,zy) askas(a)jin(an)(hh)os = .my (qy ,zy) askas(a)jinos.

I shall not ask => .le no tos ask = .le no askos.

I shall not be asking =>  .le no jos askasa = .le no askas(a)jos = .le no askasjos.

I shall not have asked => .le no hhos askinan = .le no askin(an)os = .le no askinos.

I shall not have been asking => .le no hhos jinan askasa = .le no askas(a)jinos.

Shall I ask? => .?tos le ask = .?le tos ask = .?le askos = .?askos le.

Shall I be asking? => .?jos le askasa = .?le jos askasa = .?le askas(a)jos = askasjos

Shall I have  asked? => .?hhos le askinan = .?le hhos askinan = .?le askinos.

Shall I have been asking? => .?hhos le jinan askasa = .?le hhos jinan askasa =.?le askas(a)jinos.

..tabelye 12 (jjLD): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to ask /teh (y)a(a)sk/ pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): The Active Voice /.dhah yaktihv-ah voys-eh/)

,Future in the Past /Fjjucheh-rheh in (<= pjje) dhah Paast/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

I should ask => .le tios ask = .le askios.

he would ask => .ve tios ask = .ve askios.

we should ask => .my tio(y)s ask =.my askio(y)s.

you (they) wouldl ask => .qy (zy) tio(y)s ask = .qy (zy) askio(y)s.

I should be asking => .le jios askasa =.le askas(a)jios.

he would be asking => .ve jios askasa = .ve askas(a)jios.

we should (you, they would)   be asking => .my (qy ,zy) jios askasa =.my (qy ,zy) askas(a)jios.

I souldl have asked => .le hhios askinan = .le askin(an)(hh)ios = .le askin(an)ios = .le askinios.

he would have asked => .ve hhios askinan = .ve askin(an)(hh)ios = .ve askin(an)ios = .ve askinios.

we should (you, they would)  have asked => .my (qy ,zy) hhio(y)s askina(y)n = .my (qy ,zy) askin(a(y)n)(hh)io(y)s = .my (qy ,zy) askinio(y)s.

I should have been asking => .le hhios jinan askasa = .le askas(a)jin(an)(hh)ios = .le askas(a)jinios.

he would have been asking => .ve hhios jinan askasa = .ve askas(a)jin(an)(hh)ios = .ve askas(a)jinios.

we should (you, they would) have been asking => .my (qy ,zy) hhios jinan askasa = .my (qy ,zy) askas(a)jin(an)(hh)ios = .my (qy ,zy) askas(a)jinios.

I should not ask => .le no tios ask =.le no askios.

I should not be asking =>  .le no jios askasa = .le no askas(a)jios = .le no askasjios.

I should not have asked => .le no hhios askinan = .le no askin(an)ios = .le no askinios.

I should not have been asking => .le no hhios jinan askasa = .le no askas(a)jinios.

Shall I ask? => .?tos le ask = .?le tos ask = .?le askos = .?askos le.

Should I be asking? => .?jios le askasa = .?le jios askasa = .?le askas(a)jios = askasjios

Should I have  asked? => .?hhios le askinan = .?le hhios askinan = .?le askinios.

Should I have been asking? => .?hhios le jinan askasa = .?le hhios jinan askasa = .?le askas(a)jinios.

..tabelye 13 (jjLV): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbo to ask /teh (y)a(a)sk/ pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): The Passive Voice /.dhah pyastihv-ah voys-eh/) ,Present /Prhyez(eh)nt-eh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

I am asked => .le jas askina = .le askin(a)jas.

he is asked

we are asked

you are asked

they are asked

I am being asked => .le jas jasa askina = .le askin(a)jas(a)jas.

he is being asked

we are being asked

you are being  asked

they are being asked

I have been asked => .le hhas jinan askina = .le askin(a)jin(an)as.

he has been asked

we have been asked

you have been asked

they have been asked

 

I am not asked => .le no askin(a)jas

I am not being  asked =>.le no askin(a)jas(a)jas.

I have not been  asked

 

Am I asked? => .?le askin(a)jas

Am I being asked? =>.?le askin(a)jas(a)jas.

Have I been  asked

 

..tabelye 14 (jjLB): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to ask /teh (y)a(a)sk/ pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-e/): The Passive Voice /.dhah pyastihv-ah voys-eh/) ,Past /Paast-eh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

I was asked => .le jis askina = .le askin(a)jis.

he was asked

we were asked

you were asked

they were asked

I was being asked => .le jis jasa askina = .le askin(a)jas(a)jis.

he was being asked

we were being asked

you were being asked

they were being asked

I had been asked => .le hhis jinan askina = .le askin(a)jin(an)is.

he had been asked

we had been asked

you had been asked

they had been asked

 

I was not asked

I was not being asked

I had not been  asked

 

Was I asked?

Was I being asked?

Had I been  asked?

 

..tabelye 15 (jjLM): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to ask /teh (y)a(a)sk/ pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): The Passive Voice /.dhah pyastihv-ah voihs-h/) ,Future /Fjjucheh-rh/.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

I shall be asked => .le jos askina = .le askin(a)jos.

he will be asked

we shall be asked

you will be asked

they will be asked

..praktyiko lya verba forme pjjejs grupe pes lya kontyinuay pjje lya anglya lyingve jas anstatauhata per tauhga forme pjjejs grupe pes nodyifyinyitay: I shall be  (being) asked => .le jos jasa askina = .le askin(a)jas(a)jos = .le askinjasjos.

I shall have been asked

he will have been asked => .le hhos jinan askina = .le askin(a)jin(an)(hh)os = .le askin(a)jinos.

we shall have been asked

you will have been asked

they will have been asked

 

I shall not be asked => .le no jos askina = .le no askin(a)jos.

 

I shall not have been asked => .le no hhos jinan askina = .le no askin(a)jin(an)(hh)os = .le no askin(a)jinos.

 

Shall I be asked? => .?jos le askina = .?le jos askina = .?le askin(a)jos.

 

Shall I have  been asked? => .?hhos le jinan askina = .?le hhos jinan askina = .?le askin(a)jinos.

 

..tabelye 16 (jjLQ): .konjjugaciade pes lya verbe to ask /teh (y)a(a)sk/ pjje yindyikatyiva mode (the indicative mood /dha(h) Ihndikehtihv-ah Muud-eh/): The Passive Voice /.dhah pyastihv-ah voihs-eh/) ,Future in the Past /Fjjucheh-rh in (=> pjje) dhah Paast-eh /.

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

I should be asked => .le jios askina =.le askin(a)jios.

he would be asked

we should be asked

you would be asked

they would be asked

..praktyiko lya verba forme pjjejs grupe pes lya kontyinuay pjje lya anglya lyingve jas anstatauhata per tauhga forme pjjejs grupe pes nodyifyinyitay:

I should be (being) asked => .le jios jasa askina = .le askin(a)jas(a)jios = .le askinjasjios.

I should have been asked => .le hhios jinan askina = .le askin(a)jin(an)(hh)ios = .le askin(a)jinios.

he would have been asked

we should have been asked

you would have been asked

they would have been asked

 

I should not be asked => .le no jios askina = .le no askin(a)jios.

 

I should not have been asked => .le no hhios jinan askina = .le no askin(a)jin(an)(hh)ios = .le no askin(a)jinios.

 

Should I be asked? => .?jios le askina = .?le jios askina = .?le askin(a)jios.

 

Should I have  been asked? => .?hhios le jinan askina = .?le hhios jinan askina = .?le askin(a)jinios.

 

 


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